A MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is an integral element in embedded system design that is utilized to control the loads according to an application’s requirements. More than that, it is a high voltage controlling device that provides circuit designers with some key features in terms of overall performance. For instance, many electronic projects benefit from the incorporation of a MOSFET such as light intensity control, motor control, and max generator applications.
Serving as a popular semiconductor device, a MOSFET is used for switching and amplifying electronic signals in electronic devices. It is a three terminal device that includes a source, gate, and drain, and it can be used in both analog and digital ckt. MOSFETs work by varying the width of a channel wherein charge carriers flow. The charge carriers make their way through the channel from the source and exit via the drain. The channel width is controlled by the voltage on an electrode called the gate, and it is wedged between the source and the drain. Furthermore, it is insulated from the nearby channels with an extremely thin layer of metal oxide.
Types of MOSFET Devices
MOSFETs can be classified into two variations: depletion mode MOSFET and enhancement mode MOSFET. With depletion mode MOSFETs, when there is zero voltage on the gate terminal, the channel displays its maximum conductance. As the voltage on the gate is negative or positive, the channel conductivity is decreased. In contrast, with enhancement mode MOSFETs, when there is no voltage on the gate terminal, the device does not conduct. Meanwhile, when more voltage is applied on the gate terminal, the device has good conductivity.
How Do MOSFETs Work?
Most of the work in these transistor devices depends on the metal oxide capacitor (MOS) part of the MOSFET. The oxide layer is present in the source and drain terminal, and it can be set from p-type to n-type by applying positive or negative gate voltages, respectively.
The P Channel MOSFET is fitted with negative ions so that it can work with negative voltages. When a negative gate voltage is applied, the electrons under the oxide layer are pushed down through the substrate. Meanwhile, the deflection region created by the bound positive charges are allied with the donor atoms. It is worth noting that the negative voltage attracts holes from p+ source and the drain into the channel.
When a positive gate voltage is applied, the holes under the oxide layer are pushed down through the substrate. Furthermore, the deflection region created by the bound negative charges are allied with the acceptor atoms. Keep in mind that the positive voltage attracts electrons from the n+ source and the drain into the channel.
A MOSFET can be utilized as an electronic switch for the means of controlling LEDs and lamps as well as for the auto intensity control of street lights, among other applications.
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